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Beyond beauty with real stories of inspiring women. What does the young shopper want? Stopover in Iceland? Icelandair says why not. Social content for a whole year for IHG. In contrast to Germany, Romanticism in English literature had little connection with nationalism, and the Romantics were often regarded with suspicion for the sympathy many felt for the ideals of the French Revolution , whose collapse and replacement with the dictatorship of Napoleon was, as elsewhere in Europe, a shock to the movement.
Though his novels celebrated Scottish identity and history, Scott was politically a firm Unionist, but admitted to Jacobite sympathies. Several spent much time abroad, and a famous stay on Lake Geneva with Byron and Shelley in produced the hugely influential novel Frankenstein by Shelley's wife-to-be Mary Shelley and the novella The Vampyre by Byron's doctor John William Polidori. The lyrics of Robert Burns in Scotland and Thomas Moore , from Ireland reflected in different ways their countries and the Romantic interest in folk literature, but neither had a fully Romantic approach to life or their work.
Byron is now most highly regarded for his short lyrics and his generally unromantic prose writings, especially his letters, and his unfinished satire Don Juan. Wordsworth was by respectable and highly regarded, holding a government sinecure , but wrote relatively little. In the discussion of English literature, the Romantic period is often regarded as finishing around the s, or sometimes even earlier, although many authors of the succeeding decades were no less committed to Romantic values. The most significant novelist in English during the peak Romantic period, other than Walter Scott, was Jane Austen , whose essentially conservative world-view had little in common with her Romantic contemporaries, retaining a strong belief in decorum and social rules, though critics [ who?
While these two novels were written and published after the Romantic period is said to have ended, their novels were heavily influenced by Romantic literature they'd read as children. Byron, Keats and Shelley all wrote for the stage, but with little success in England, with Shelley's The Cenci perhaps the best work produced, though that was not played in a public theatre in England until a century after his death. Byron's plays, along with dramatizations of his poems and Scott's novels, were much more popular on the Continent, and especially in France, and through these versions several were turned into operas, many still performed today.
If contemporary poets had little success on the stage, the period was a legendary one for performances of Shakespeare , and went some way to restoring his original texts and removing the Augustan "improvements" to them. The greatest actor of the period, Edmund Kean , restored the tragic ending to King Lear ;  Coleridge said that, "Seeing him act was like reading Shakespeare by flashes of lightning.
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Although after union with England in Scotland increasingly adopted English language and wider cultural norms, its literature developed a distinct national identity and began to enjoy an international reputation. Allan Ramsay — laid the foundations of a reawakening of interest in older Scottish literature, as well as leading the trend for pastoral poetry, helping to develop the Habbie stanza as a poetic form. Claiming to have found poetry written by the ancient bard Ossian , he published translations that acquired international popularity, being proclaimed as a Celtic equivalent of the Classical epics.
Fingal , written in , was speedily translated into many European languages, and its appreciation of natural beauty and treatment of the ancient legend has been credited more than any single work with bringing about the Romantic movement in European, and especially in German literature, through its influence on Johann Gottfried von Herder and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Robert Burns —96 and Walter Scott — were highly influenced by the Ossian cycle. Burns, an Ayrshire poet and lyricist, is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland and a major influence on the Romantic movement.
His poem and song " Auld Lang Syne " is often sung at Hogmanay the last day of the year , and " Scots Wha Hae " served for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of the country. His first prose work, Waverley in , is often called the first historical novel.
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Scott probably did more than any other figure to define and popularise Scottish cultural identity in the nineteenth century. Scotland was also the location of two of the most important literary magazines of the era, The Edinburgh Review founded in and Blackwood's Magazine founded in , which had a major impact on the development of British literature and drama in the era of Romanticism.
Scottish "national drama" emerged in the early s, as plays with specifically Scottish themes began to dominate the Scottish stage. Theatres had been discouraged by the Church of Scotland and fears of Jacobite assemblies. In the later eighteenth century, many plays were written for and performed by small amateur companies and were not published and so most have been lost. Towards the end of the century there were " closet dramas ", primarily designed to be read, rather than performed, including work by Scott, Hogg, Galt and Joanna Baillie — , often influenced by the ballad tradition and Gothic Romanticism.
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Romanticism was relatively late in developing in French literature , more so than in the visual arts. The 18th-century precursor to Romanticism, the cult of sensibility, had become associated with the Ancien regime , and the French Revolution had been more of an inspiration to foreign writers than those experiencing it at first-hand.
After the Bourbon Restoration , French Romanticism developed in the lively world of Parisian theatre , with productions of Shakespeare , Schiller in France a key Romantic author , and adaptations of Scott and Byron alongside French authors, several of whom began to write in the late s. Cliques of pro- and anti-Romantics developed, and productions were often accompanied by raucous vocalizing by the two sides, including the shouted assertion by one theatregoer in that "Shakespeare, c'est l'aide-de-camp de Wellington" "Shakespeare is Wellington's aide-de-camp ".
Victor Hugo published as a poet in the s before achieving success on the stage with Hernani —a historical drama in a quasi-Shakespearian style that had famously riotous performances on its first run in The preface to his unperformed play "Cromwell" gives an important manifesto of French Romanticism, stating that "there are no rules, or models".
Alfred de Vigny remains best known as a dramatist, with his play on the life of the English poet Chatterton perhaps his best work. George Sand was a central figure of the Parisian literary scene, famous both for her novels and criticism and her affairs with Chopin and several others;  she too was inspired by the theatre, and wrote works to be staged at her private estate.
Stendhal is today probably the most highly regarded French novelist of the period, but he stands in a complex relation with Romanticism, and is notable for his penetrating psychological insight into his characters and his realism, qualities rarely prominent in Romantic fiction. As a survivor of the French retreat from Moscow in , fantasies of heroism and adventure had little appeal for him, and like Goya he is often seen as a forerunner of Realism. Romanticism in Poland is often taken to begin with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz 's first poems in , and end with the crushing of the January Uprising of against the Russians.
It was strongly marked by interest in Polish history. This close connection between Polish Romanticism and Polish history became one of the defining qualities of the literature of Polish Romanticism period, differentiating it from that of other countries. They had not suffered the loss of national statehood as was the case with Poland. The Polish intelligentsia, along with leading members of its government, left Poland in the early s, during what is referred to as the " Great Emigration ", resettling in France, Germany, Great Britain, Turkey, and the United States.
Their art featured emotionalism and irrationality , fantasy and imagination, personality cults, folklore and country life, and the propagation of ideals of freedom. In the second period, many of the Polish Romantics worked abroad, often banished from Poland by the occupying powers due to their politically subversive ideas.
Their work became increasingly dominated by the ideals of political struggle for freedom and their country's sovereignty. Elements of mysticism became more prominent. There developed the idea of the poeta wieszcz the prophet. The wieszcz bard functioned as spiritual leader to the nation fighting for its independence. The most notable poet so recognized was Adam Mickiewicz. Zygmunt Krasinski also wrote to inspire political and religious hope in his countrymen. Unlike his predecessors, who called for victory at whatever price in Poland's struggle against Russia, Krasinski emphasized Poland's spiritual role in its fight for independence, advocating an intellectual rather than a military superiority.
Pushkin's work influenced many writers in the 19th century and led to his eventual recognition as Russia's greatest poet.
Influenced heavily by Lord Byron, Lermontov sought to explore the Romantic emphasis on metaphysical discontent with society and self, while Tyutchev's poems often described scenes of nature or passions of love. Tyutchev commonly operated with such categories as night and day, north and south, dream and reality, cosmos and chaos, and the still world of winter and spring teeming with life. Baratynsky's style was fairly classical in nature, dwelling on the models of the previous century. Romanticism in Spanish literature developed a well-known literature with a huge variety of poets and playwrights.
Spanish Romanticism also influenced regional literatures. There are scholars who consider Spanish Romanticism to be Proto-Existentialism because it is more anguished than the movement in other European countries. Foster et al. According to Richard Caldwell, the writers that we now identify with Spain's romanticism were actually precursors to those who galvanized the literary movement that emerged in the s.
Alexandre, bishop of Angra , in the precepts of Neoclassicism , which can be observed in his early work. Almeida Garrett had participated in the Liberal Revolution , which caused him to exile himself in England in and then in France, after the Vila-Francada. He was also deeply interested in Portuguese folkloric verse, which resulted in the publication of Romanceiro "Traditional Portuguese Ballads" , that recollect a great number of ancient popular ballads, known as "romances" or "rimances", in redondilha maior verse form, that contained stories of chivalry , life of saints , crusades , courtly love , etc.
He too was forced to exile to Great Britain and France because of his liberal ideals. All of his poetry and prose are unlike Almeida Garrett's entirely Romantic, rejecting Greco-Roman myth and history. He became an unquestionable master for successive Ultra-Romantic generations, whose influence would not be challenged until the famous Coimbra Question.