Doch ich bekam sie nicht mehr aus meinem Kopf. Im Moment sollte ich keinesfalls an so etwas denken wie den runden Hintern von irgendeiner kleinen Rothaarigen mit Sommersprossen wie Feenstaub. Nicht, nachdem ich in den letzten Tagen eine wahre Spezialistin auf diesem Gebiet geworden war. Er war riesig. Ich schreckte hoch und richtete meine Aufmerksamkeit wieder auf das, was wichtig war.
Ich kannte den Blick, den er mir zuwarf. Den Zweifel darin. Um genau zu sein, nicht in allen. Die Frau in der Arztpraxis am Freitag hatte sich von diesem Umstand nicht beeinflussen lassen. Ihr Problem war, dass ich kein College besucht hatte und statt eines Highschool-Diploms nur einen Abschluss vorweisen konnte, den ich auf dem zweiten Bildungsweg erworben hatte.
Aber ich konnte es nur beweisen, wenn mir jemand die Gelegenheit dazu bot. Als ich in der Industrie arbeitete, hatte ich immer die zweite Schicht, die mittags anfing.
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Only you, oh Eve! Mein Vater ist erblichen! A scribe working from the keyboard reduction before the music was edited and augmented by Haydn would not have any reason to name him on the title. He assumes an Augsburg provenance of the score.
Firstly, the manuscript A-Ssp, Hay Thirdly, a printed textbook for the Salzburg performance survives under the shelfmark A-Ssp, Hay While these three items probably stand in direct connection with the performance of Der Tod Abels in , two further manuscripts document the continued esteem of the work in the decades afterwards. The original version of the work by Rolle and Patzke was given on the school theatre. Apparently, the university theatre was totally overcrowded for the Salzburg performance of Der Tod Abels on 3 September Peter, could not find a seat in the theatre.
We can only assume that Leopold at least was aware of what happened at the university theatre, as musicians of the court music and singers from the Kapellhaus, where Leopold taught, were involved in the performance. He left Salzburg the year before with high hopes of securing an employment at one of the courts abroad or at least of earning a decent sum touring, but neither came true and the trip turned out to be a financial disaster. Furthermore, Wolfgang started out on this journey in company of his mother, whose passing in Paris in July , far away from home, was a shock to the entire family.
Mehr Neu für den Sektor
With this personal bereavement and the financial failure in the background, Wolfgang dreaded the return to Salzburg See Boberski, Das Theater der Benediktiner, Yet, I would like to suggest that the tears might also be read in the larger cultural context of Empfindsamkeit, in which compassion and the display of a compassionate heart were regarded as a high value. Musicological interest in the cultural dimension of eighteenth-century music and music making increased considerably during the last decades and thus Empfindsamkeit came into focus.
Matthew Head, Sovereign Feminine: Simon Keefe Cambridge, , 74— For example, Wolfgang asked Nannerl to keep him informed about repertory and performers at the Salzburg theatre, when he was in Munich preparing Idomeneo in , and she diligently sent him a detailed listing of all plays performed. Presumably, Nannerl also followed the events at the theatre opposite their home during the months before, attending rehearsals, performances or eying up the theatregoers, just as she did in The commentary to this letter does not identify the piece, see Briefe, vi, Being offered all the money of Perthold they plan to spend it on the education of their children and on buying a bakery, which is the trade the cousin originally trained for.
Several side plots add to the sentimental character of the piece: Walter marries the stepdaughter of Perthold and both are portrayed as morally unadulterated young persons. While this story might seem entirely trivial to us nowadays, it was lauded for its depiction of feelings and of Empfindsamkeit, as human capacity, which ultimately lead to good deeds.
Often it is a sorrowful farewell that brought the tears about and those tears are the proof of sincere friendship. Compassion and being moved, Empfindsamkeit, were obviously a valued capacity and understood as such within the Mozart family. He has taken a great fancy to me. He has a daughter who plays the clavier quite nicely; and in order to properly make a friend of him I am now working at a sonata for her, which is almost finished save for the Rondo. In Mannheim, Wolfgang planned or at least purported to use the same policy in order to attain the favour of the Elector and Leopold clearly approved of this.
In addition, Leopold admonished his son also to befriend the governess, presumably because her influence on the children and the parents was crucially important in such a plot. For this reason Leopold gave them a letter of recommendation to Hagenauer and also wrote the following lines to his landlord separately: And now it is time to tell you something about my two friends from Saxony, Baron von Hopfgarten and Baron von Bose.
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Bose died in Rome on 28 April , a couple of months after his departure from Paris. Menschen sehen, die alles haben, was ein ehrlicher Mann auf dieser Welt haben soll: Perhaps this hope came true in , when Leopold visited Wolfgang in Vienna and attended several concerts of his son. Thus the full context of the words above reads: I know that you love me, not merely as your father, but also as your truest and surest friend; that you understand and realise that our happiness and unhappiness, and, what is more, my long life or my speedy death are, if I may say so, apart from God, in your hands.
Writing to Ignaz Joseph Spaur, archbishop of Brixen, in order to congratulate him on his name day, Leopold told him about the passing of his wife and laments: Such visits provided a way to establish personal emotional ties with luminaries of the past, just as hanging their pictures on walls at home. In Antwerp, the family visited the tomb of the painter Rubens, which included a portrait of the painter and his family, as Leopold noted specifically.
Friendships made on journeys often evolved during a very short time and one hoped to conserve such fleeting encounters of true friendship by exchanging a keepsake upon departure. For a description of the tomb, its attraction and its meaning for travellers in the eighteenth century, see Constanze Baum, Ruinenlandschaften Heidelberg, , — Leopold used the engraving of it for merchandising purposes on this tour, as well as selling it as a souvenir for years to come. A facsimile of the dedication letter is included in DeutschBilder, Though Leopold was at first deeply sceptical about the new castrato Francesco Ceccarelli, who arrived in Salzburg in autumn , they Dokumente, —9; Documentary Biography, — Robbins Landon London, , 8.
When Leopold, Wolfgang and Nannerl Mozart permanently lived in different places, the exchange of portraits also played a role within the family: Gilgen from January Perhaps Nannerl had a particular interest in collecting silhouettes. Maria Margaretha Marchand stayed with Leopold and Nannerl in Salzburg between and and Leopold taught her keyboard playing, singing and composition. Before she returned to Munich in summer , she wrote a letter to Nannerl, who had just married Johann Baptist Berchthold von Sonnenburg and moved to St.
See Briefe, vi, Now farewell, my dearest and best, — remember that I talk to your portrait every night before I go to bed for a long half an hour, and the same I do when I wake up. The cultural transfer of books, plays and ideas from the northern part of Germany clearly played a considerable role within the intellectual, artistic and academic life in Salzburg during the second half of the eighteenth century. The current chapter will describe how the musical links between North Germany and Salzburg were much stronger than commonly assumed, too.
Schrei nach Liebe
It is in the realm of domestic music making that the influence of North German musical culture is most clearly visible. This part of Salzburg music culture hardly received any attention until now within musicological or historical research beyond the bare facts that Leopold, Wolfgang and Nannerl Mozart tutored some noble children in piano or violin playing. Regarding domestic music making he states that it is beyond our knowledge and assumes that it only became widespread during the nineteenth century. Johann Andreas Schachtner, preface [unpaginated].
See Violinschule, preface [unpaginated]. Wilhelm Rausch Linz, , The first part of this chapter will investigate the music trade in Salzburg and provide an overview on the sales channels Chapter 5. This is followed by a detailed documentation of North German publications available in town Chapter 5. For example in October , Mayr advertised three music treatises published by Lotter: Very often these church compositions allowed expressly for flexible or small performance forces, so as to increase their commercial viability.
Other voices and instruments can be added to make up a four-part chorus and an ensemble of two violins and two horns in addition to the continuo. These were mainly music treatises, piano pieces and songs, a repertory clearly aimed at a bourgeois market of amateur music lovers, which I will detail below. All the itinerant book traders coming to the Salzburg fairs also dealt with sheet music and their sales catalogues prove the general availability of a wide range of music publications in Salzburg.
It is impossible to determine which of the advertised volumes of sheet music the traders Lotter, Wolff, Schwarzkopf and Klett brought to Salzburg in physical copies for the fairs.
In addition to these general book traders, who also dealt with some music, there were two specialist music dealers and publishers active on the Salzburg market: Lotter was the music publisher with the strongest presence in Salzburg during the second half of the eighteenth century. Lotter published music catalogues fairly regularly and the surviving catalogues prove his repeated presence at the Salzburg fairs between and The extant catalogues from this period all state on the title pages that Lotter visited both of the Salzburg fairs.
Missae rurales, quibus accedunt II. Missae de requiem Augsburg, Lotter, The agents were mostly book traders, such as Lotter in Augsburg, and some musicians. Cited in Rheinfurth, Der Musikverlag Lotter, See Rheinfurth, Der Musikverlag Lotter, 49— To my knowledge, the catalogue of is the only one by Haffner extant today and therefore it is impossible to verify, since when Leopold Mozart acted as agent for Haffner.
Reciprocally, Haffner distributed publications of the Mozarts: Haffner mainly printed music for domestic music making. Yet, the catalogue might date from , as several publications advertised seem to postdate yet, the dating of the plate numbers by Hoffmann-Erbrecht is not beyond doubt. Yet, a comprehensive selection of books on music and music treatises by north German authors or published in North Germany was also available in town. In particular the writings of Johann Mattheson, Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg and Georg Andreas Sorge featured frequently in the sales catalogues of the book traders.
The large amount of music literature and music treatises reflected the trend to a more structured and scientific music education, as opposed to the purely oral tradition of teaching music. It also shows how music education and musical knowledge became part of the general culture of educated citizens. Some highly specialised books on organ building or mathematical calculations of tunings were advertised by the book traders, too, even though these books probably did not appeal to a wide audience.
The asterisks specify editions by other publishers. The two volumes of this work were sold by Schwarzkopf in Some of the epoch-making musical journals from Berlin and Leipzig were also available in Salzburg: A biography and an engraved portrait of Georg Philipp Telemann within J.
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A wide array of works by the multifaceted musician, theorist and scholar Johann Mattheson was advertised by the Lotter brothers: The interested reader in Salzburg could also acquire some of the more speculative late works by Mattheson: In his book Buttstett tried to reassure the eternal validity of traditional music theory against the newfangled writings by Mattheson. It included sections on figured bass, on playing the most common instruments keyboard, strings and flute and also on instrument building.
The composition and ground bass treatises available on the Salzburg market encompass the full range from highly complex treatises to simple introductions for the amateur Liebhaber. In Marpurg started an educational anthology of fugues, titled Fugen-Sammlung, which he planned to continue annually, but only the first volume got published and was distributed in Salzburg.
Another compositional treatise edited by Marpurg was available in Salzburg: Figured bass still was the foundation of any compositional training. A diverse range of instrumental treatises from North Germany could also be purchased in Salzburg. Lotter also distributed the two works on keyboard playing published by Marpurg: In , the book trader Klett stocked a piano treatise written particularly for children by Georg Friedrich Merbach, published in Leipzig in Three more practical music treatises published in northern Germany were advertised within the sales catalogues of the book traders in Salzburg: Specialist books on the questions of tuning temperaments for keyboard instruments by Barthold Fritz and Johann Georg Neidhardt were advertised by Lotter, as well as three publications by Georg Andreas Sorge dealing with the subject of mathematical proportions of intervals and tuning.
Only a small selection of these books survives in Salzburg archives and libraries today. Some of these volumes can be securely attributed to a specific owner in the eighteenth century. Pergler, probably living around , clearly was musically interested as there are two more treatises within the collection of the Salzburg Museum that carry his signature or an ownership stamp: Many of these publications highlight their suitability for the amateur in their titles: Published by Johann Wilhelm Windter around , Lotter advertised them in his sales catalogue of Not only the theoretical writings, but also a large selection of keyboard compositions by Georg Andreas Sorge were available in Salzburg.
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